God doesn't Play Dice yet Science does - Research Paper Example Before the Big Bang our universe was no greater than the size of a nu...
Friday, September 4, 2020
God doesn't Play Dice yet Science does - Research Paper Example Before the Big Bang our universe was no greater than the size of a nuclear core. Science clarifies that from that point forward the universe has been extending at a consistent rate (John, 1997). It was Edwin Hubble in 1929 whose perceptions affirmed this suspicion. Despite the fact that the universe is growing, nobody realizes what it is venturing into. The laws of science could clarify the underlying states of the universe however would neglect to explain the explanation as a result of which the universe started. Prior to the Eighteenth century, it was accepted that such inquiries had a place with the domain of transcendentalism or religion. Today such a methodology is broadly viewed as over the top as science in the 21st century could unwind the most amazing puzzles. Our view of existence have been significantly affected by speculations including EinsteinÃ¢â¬â¢s general hypothesis of Relativity, Newton's hypothesis of gravity and to a great extent by the Quantum hypothesis. Einst ein's extraordinary hypothesis of relativity, which was later adjusted as the general hypothesis of relativity and Newton's hypothesis are old style speculations. Their suggestions recommended that existence were a fixed foundation. Time resembled a long track extending in just two ways. Einstein discovered multitudinous troubles when he attempted to accommodate his uncommon hypothesis with Newton's hypothesis of Gravity. He in the end depended on the end that space itself was bended and it was not isolated from time. He featured the way that gravity had twisted everything in space. Items in space would attempt to move a straight way however their ways would seem, by all accounts, to be twisted. It was hence assessed that because of sun's mass space-time would bend which twists the way of the planets. Space-time could be characterized as the four dimensional space whose each point is an occasion. Einstein's General hypothesis of relativity which further expressed that the laws of sc ience ought to be same for all spectators was affirmed in 1915, roughly ten years after the acknowledgment of the exceptional hypothesis of relativity. Presently one may ponder that reality could be more bizarre than fiction on the grounds that the laws which oversee universe can shape reality in the most surprising style. It is unavoidable to overlook these mind boggling ideas on the off chance that we are to build up a comprehension of reality from a logical point. The revelation of Quantum mechanics in 1926 was probably the best accomplishment ever for science. Einstein was mostly liable for its revelation yet Max Planck assumed the significant job. The word 'Quantum' has been gotten from 'Quanta' which implies parcels. Quantum material science manages the investigation of sub-nuclear particles and as indicated by numerous researchers this hypothesis has gotten a component of vulnerability present day material science (Michel, 2006). A significant idea which shapes the premise of Quantum hypothesis is the Heisenberg's vulnerability standard. It expresses that one can't precisely decide the speed and position of a molecule at the same time. On the off chance that you would attempt to quantify a molecule's area precisely, at that point you won't have the option to decide its genuine speed. Einstein had before proposed that light comprised of particles known as 'photons'. He in this way clarified how electrons in a strong body would be removed if light fell on it. It ought to be noticed that Quantum mechanics work on an extremely little scope yet it stays a critical piece of Science. Anyway Richard Feynman's hypothesis without which the Quantum hypothesis is deficient can be applied for a bigger scope. As indicated by its standards each occasion or
Tuesday, August 25, 2020
In a customary working environment, reminders are the typical type of business messages that are sent from officials to representatives. With the coming of innovation, the issuance of notices is frequently restricted to subjects of general intrigue, as authoritative gatherings or strategy changes. On the off chance that I were a lead engineer in Cards4U, IÃ¢â¬â¢d amplify the utilization of quicker and increasingly proficient apparatuses to help me in speaking with different individuals from the group, just as organization administrators and potential customers.Ã¢ That implies messages will be the essential wellspring of correspondence among the colleagues, since sending and accepting messages take just a couple of moments to a couple minutes.Ã¢ E-mail interchanges are advantageous, shouldn't be excessively formal, and can be gotten to whenever, anywhere.Ã¢ The reminders will be used to advise the CEO or clients in regards to item introductions and updates. Since IÃ¢â¬â¢m a lead engineer in an imaginative structure gathering, introductions utilizing PowerPoint or Flash would be helpful in displaying most recent plans and innovations.Ã¢ Reports are likewise important to record the advancement, exercises, and changes in the creation department.Ã¢ Face to confront gatherings with clients are essential to build up affinity and get them to purchase your structures, or get their criticism. In the event that up close and personal gathering is beyond the realm of imagination, telephone calls can likewise be used.Ã¢ Meeting the CEO for updates and improvements would likewise expect up close and personal encounters.Ã¢ However, on the off chance that the CEO started discussion utilizing messages, at that point, I should take his lead and answer utilizing the equivalent medium.Ã¢ But in the event that the message were sent through the more conventional reminder, at that point the answer would likewise be of that sort. All the more significantly, in a business correspondence that I would send, the messages ought to be succinct, direct forthright, and expert. References Business/Professional Writing.(1995-2004). OWL at Purdue University.Ã¢ Retrieved December 4, 2007, from:Ã¢ http://owl.english.purdue.edu/workshops/pp/index.html#business Ramsey, L. (2005). Business E-mail Messages and Professionalism.Ã¢ Retrieved December 4, 2007, from, http://website101.com/email_e-mail/e-mail_business-etiquette.html Kotelnikov, V. Viable Business Communication. Recovered December 4, 2007, from Ã Ã¢ Ã¢ Ã¢ Ã¢ Ã¢ Ã¢ http://www.1000ventures.com/business_guide/crosscuttings/biz_communication_main.html
Saturday, August 22, 2020
Delineations Improve Retention and Understanding Its as simple as tumbling off a log, he was quicker than lubed lightning, she was more slow than molasses.All of these announcements share something for all intents and purpose. They are altogether approaches to delineate a nature of somebody or something.Its been said that words generally can't do a picture justice. In the event that youve ever attempted to collect something that you bought in pieces, for example, a cabinet or other household item, you can value the honesty of that announcement. Regardless of whether the bearings are in Japanese, seeing an image or straightforward drawing can make the important advances understood (or if nothing else more clear). Similarly, pictures make a significant expansion to essentially any type of composing. Notwithstanding, by and large, pictures are simply impossible. At these occasions youll need to depend on another asset, your ability as an author. Would you be able to paint an image with your words? Would you be able to cause your perus er to feel the snowstorm? Smell the newly heated bread? Or on the other hand observe the daylight shining on the frigid sputtering water of a mountain stream? In your true to life composing, would you be able to enable your crowd to comprehend and welcome the essentialness of the point you are attempting to pass on? Word delineations are a significant instrument to assist you with achieving these goals.Illustrations are metaphors, genuine encounters, or stories that help your peruser picture what you are attempting to state. They make your composing all the more fascinating, yet they can likewise help in maintenance and comprehension. For instance, think about The Boy Who Cried Wolf or The Tortoise and the Hare, both piece of Aesops Fables. Every one of these accounts shows a thing or two or contains a good. The tales show the standards being instructed such that makes them clear and simple to recall. Truth be told, the articulation telling a shameful lie has become an English idiom .Real-beneficial encounters, or genuine stories, can be significantly increasingly viable at showing a point. For instance, to show the possibility of never surrendering, you could highlight Thomas Edison. His instructors thought he was too inept to even consider learning anything and he was terminated from his initial two employments for being non-profitable. In spite of the fact that he is well known for creating the light, did you realize that he bombed in his initial 1,000 endeavors? For a less difficult model, you could make reference to that Henry Ford fizzled and lost everything multiple times before he succeeded.Of course, in numerous types of composing, there is no space for a long story, regardless of whether valid or not. This kind of representation would be strange. It would resemble seeing a gold nose ring in the nose of a pig, or about as welcome as ants at an outing. However, dont stress! The least complex, and once in a while best, method of painting an image with wo rds is to utilize a saying. The most straightforward of these is the comparison. As you would figure, the word analogy originates from a similar Latin word as comparable, a word that implies like. At the point when you utilize a likeness you are stating that one thing resembles another, or as another (see the two metaphors toward the start of the section). The greater part of us use comparisons all the time in conventional discussion, maybe without contemplating it. In the event that youve ever said that somebody was as large as a house, as fat as a pig, or as stupid as a stump, youre not decent. Yet, congrats! You realize how to utilize similes.Metaphors are like analogies, yet similitudes make a more grounded examination. Rather than saying that one thing resembles another, a representation says that they are the equivalent. At the point when Shakespeare said that all the universes a phase and all the people just players (As You Like It Act 2 Scene VII), he was utilizing an incred ible illustration. You also can utilize allegories to give an amazing impression or make a solid point, maybe changing a decent likeness into a superior similitude. For instance, you may state that somebody is as bold as a lion. This is utilizing a comparison to give them a decent pat on the back. You could make it a more pleasant commendation by saying that the individual has the core of a lion.However, with the two analogies and allegories, you must be cautious that your perusers dont misunderstand the significance. For instance, in the event that you express the above analogy in an alternate manner, the significance changes. In the event that you simply state that the individual is a lion, would you say you are as yet giving them a pat on the back? Or on the other hand would you say you are stating that they are furious, or go after the powerless, or alarm little kids? Similarly, to be as mindful as a snake is acceptable; to be a snake may not be so acceptable. So at that point, allegories can be utilized to make solid focuses, yet to be successful you need to ensure that they are unambiguous so your perusers unmistakably comprehend what you mean.You may likewise utilize overstatements in your composition. These are conscious distortions. For example, in the event that you said that your wifes espresso was solid to such an extent that you could drift a horseshoe in it, you would utilize overstatement or embellishment (ideally). Like similitudes, metaphors are powerful at making solid focuses yet can be effectively misunderstood.This carries us to our last point. Whatever word picture we paint, regardless of whether using a story, likeness, representation, or exaggeration, its valueless if not comprehended. Truth be told, it might be more awful than valueless; it might take away from your story or befuddle your peruser. How would you ensure that this doesnt occur? In the first place, think about your crowd. Utilizing an amusing story dependent on quantum mec hanics (I know its enticing) as a delineation might be completely worthy when composing for a gathering of hypothetical physicists; for other people, it might be less powerful. Similarly as with numerous everyday issues, its normally best to keep it basic. Attempt to discover sayings or stories that most of individuals can promptly comprehend and relate to. By and large, this implies utilizing examinations that include customary things that influence people groups day by day lives, for example, the climate, family life, the workplace, basic nourishments, etc.Like pictures, outlines, or graphs, word representations can be utilized to change up your composition. However they additionally do significantly more. Utilized appropriately in an anecdotal story, they can include extravagance, profundity, and surface to the image youre painting in the perusers mind. In different types of composing, they can improve your perusers maintenance and comprehension of the focuses you are attempting to pass on.
Step by step instructions to Use Delphi to Build a Custom Windows Explorer Windows Explorer is the thing that you use in the Windows working framework to peruse for documents and envelopes. You can make a comparable structure with Delphi so a similar substance is populated inside your projects UI. Normal discourse confines are utilized Delphi to open and spare a document in an application. In the event that you need to utilize redid document chiefs and index perusing discoursed, you need to manage record framework Delphi parts. The Win 3.1 VCL palette bunch incorporates a few segments that permit you to assemble your own custom File Open or File Save exchange box: TFileListBox, TDirectoryListBox, TDriveComboBox, and TFilterComboBox. Exploring Files The record framework segments permit us to choose a drive, see the various leveled catalog structure of a plate, and see the names of the documents in a given index. The entirety of the document framework parts are intended to cooperate. For instance, your code checks what the client has done to, say, a DriveComboBox and afterward gives this data to a DirectoryListBox. The progressions in DirectoryListBox are then passed to a FileListBox wherein the client can choose the file(s) required. Structuring the Dialog Form Start another Delphi application and select the Win 3.1 tab of the Component palette. At that point do the accompanying: Spot one TFileListBox, TDirectoryListBox, TDriveComboBox, and TFilterComboBox part on a structure, keeping the entirety of their default namesAdd one TEdit (named FileNameEdit) and one TLabel (call it DirLabel).Include a couple of marks with inscriptions, similar to File Name, Directory, List Files of Type, and Drives. To show the as of now chose way as a string in a DirLabel parts inscription, allot the Labels name to the DirectoryListBoxs DirLabel property. In the event that you need to show the chose filename in an EditBox (FileNameEdit), you need to appoint the Edit objects Name (FileNameEdit) to the FileListBoxs FileEdit property. More Lines of Code At the point when you have all the record framework segments on the structure, you simply need to set the DirectoryListBox.Drive property and the FileListBox.Directory property all together for the parts to impart and show what the client needs to see. For instance, when the client chooses another drive, Delphi actuates the DriveComboBox OnChange occasion handler. Make it resemble this: Ã procedure TForm1.DriveComboBox1Change(Sender: TObject) ;beginDirectoryListBox1.Drive : DriveComboBox1.Drive;end; This code changes the showcase in the DirectoryListBox by initiating its OnChange occasion Handler: Ã procedure TForm1.DirectoryListBox1Change(Sender: TObject) ;beginFileListBox1.Directory : DirectoryListBox1.Directory;end; So as to perceive what document the client has chosen, you have to utilize the OnDblClick occasion of the FileListBox: Ã procedure TForm1.FileListBox1DblClick(Sender: TObject) ;beginShowmessage(Selected: FileListBox1.FileName) ;end; Recollect that the Windows show is to have a double tap pick the document, not a solitary snap. This is significant when you work with a FileListBox in light of the fact that utilizing a bolt key to travel through a FileListBox would consider any OnClick handler that you have composed. Sifting the Display Utilize a FilterComboBox to control the kind of documents that are shown in a FileListBox. In the wake of setting the FilterComboBoxs FileList property to the name of a FileListBox, set the Filter property to the document types that you need to show. Heres an example channel: Ã FilterComboBox1.Filter : All records (*.*)|*.* | Project documents (*.dpr)|*.dpr | Pascal units (*.pas)|*.pas; Insights and Tips Setting the DirectoryListBox.Drive property and the FileListBox.Directory property (in the recently composed OnChange occasion handlers) at runtimeÃ¢ can be likewise be done at configuration time. You can achieve this sort of association at configuration time by setting the accompanying properties (from the Object Inspector): DriveComboBox1.DirList : DirectoryListBox1DirectoryListBox1.FileList : FileListBox1 Clients can choose different documents in a FileListBox if its MultiSelect property is True. The accompanying code tells the best way to make a rundown of numerous determinations in a FileListBox and show it in a SimpleListBox (some customary ListBox control). Ã var k: integer;...with FileListBox1 doif SelCount 0 thenfor k:0 to Items.Count-1 doif Selected[k] thenSimpleListBox.Items.Add(Items[k]) ; To show full way names that are not abbreviated with an ellipsis, don't dole out a Label object name to the DirLabel property of a DirectoryListBox. Rather, embed a Label into a structure and set its inscription property in the DirectoryListBoxs OnChange occasion to the DirectoryListBox.Directory property.
Friday, August 21, 2020
Estimation of Flexible Management Paper Acquaintance Prior with examining this theme, my impression of the board was restricted. My idea was coincided inside the system of business and financial aspects. Subsequently, my meaning of this build was in mistake. For correction, and fundamental reference, the board is the way toward coordinating assets towards the achievement of a particular objective. This definition, one that I have gotten from the gathering of many, fuses two key factors. The primary employable word in this definition is Ã¢â¬Å"resources. Assets can mean anything from cash, representatives, competitors, understudies, or pretty much any composed exertion, gathering or associate. The other utilitarian variable in this definition is Ã¢â¬Å"goal. Ã¢â¬ The objective or point of the sorted out exertion can be characterized in endless manners, not just as far as monetary additions or corporate achievement. This definition assists with showing exactly how much administration channels through a gamete of ventures. The executives jobs are found in business just as sports, scholastics, and numerous different ventures in numerous structures. Presently that there is an establishment for what the board is, the reason is this procedure significant? The executives can understand potential and direct assets so that will streamline the arrival on the contributed assets. Directors can make chances of preferred position and advance effective objective fulfillment. In this lays the significance of this job. Powerful administration guarantees that with the utilization of negligible assets, there will be an arrival of most extreme advantages. Since there are such advantages of good administration, it is useful to investigate the assortment of styles. This paper will, first, diagram the significant styles of the board. While there are a wide range of names and characterizations of the executives styles; there are three principle types. These incorporate totalitarian, participatory, and free enterprise. The significant contrast of the three styles is how much the chief coordinates the given assets. The despotic style of the board includes the supervisors settling on all the choices for assets, with no other info. The participative style of the board requires the conference of others, for example, workers, in the dynamic procedure. In free enterprise style of the board, the chief has next to zero section toward assets. We will compose a custom article test on Value of Flexible Management explicitly for you for just $16.38 $13.9/page Request now We will compose a custom exposition test on Value of Flexible Management explicitly for you FOR ONLY $16.38 $13.9/page Recruit Writer We will compose a custom exposition test on Value of Flexible Management explicitly for you FOR ONLY $16.38 $13.9/page Recruit Writer Thinking about the distinctions of these significant styles of the executives, is there one style that outweighs another? Is there a Ã¢â¬Å"bestÃ¢â¬ administrative practice? In 2006, Harvard Business School distributed an article digging into the distinctions of the executives strategies (Silverthorne, 2006). The premise of the article investigates how oneÃ¢â¬â¢s administration style is vigorously impacted by what sort of individual they are. Along these lines, chiefs should know about the kind of individual they are to completely see how they oversee and in what circumstances they will be effective. This article underpins the thought that a managerÃ¢â¬â¢s adequacy is constrained by their prevailing style of the executives. What's more, due to individual manners, chiefs can't change themselves and must be mindful so as to adjust themselves to circumstances that concur with their style of the board. As a general rule, this develop is very unreasonable. We are, intermittently, unfit to pick the circumstances in which we work, expertly. How, at that point, does one oversee adequately? Different administration styles can be utilized subject to the way of life of the business and the idea of the assignment, workforce, and assets. This thought bolsters that the predominant conditions direct the best administration style and supervisors should practice a scope of strategies. This is the resulting focal point of this conversation. While many are characterized by a prevailing style of the executives, a successful supervisor is one who can adjust their administration methods to an assortment as they emerge. Dictatorial Management Autocratic Management is the style where the chief has the best level of authority over the bearing of the assets. In this style, supervisors settle on all choices singularly. Chiefs as a rule direct requests and utilize an exacting arrangement of balanced governance to guarantee adherence to conventions. Additionally know as order the board, directors guide their subordinates, how to do it and when to have it finished by (Coye Belohlav, 1995, p 16). They allocate jobs and duties, set principles, and characterize desires. Inside this style of the board correspondence is one way, and go from the executives to assets. For instance, when the administrator talks the worker tunes in and responds. As characterized over, the reason for the board is to coordinate assets toward an objective. In absolutist administration, the chief defines all objectives with explicit cutoff times to follow progress. The despotic administrator is the head of the dynamic procedure. At the point when an issue emerge the assets report to the director and the administrator assesses the alternatives and settles on the choice with regards to the course and move that ought to be made (Coye Belohlav, 1995). As far as the executives input, the despotic style of the board calls for point by point guidelines of changes that should be made to the last item. Any prizes and acknowledgment presented via absolutist supervisors are directed by how well individuals follow headings. An ideal outline of a working use of the imperious style of the board can be seen however the administration utilized in United States Military. Inside the military the positioning framework sets a scene for the job of the administrator. As per a severe chain of orders, individuals with a higher position than another, have the duty to coordinate the activities of subordinates (See Exhibit A). Subordinates, for example, Airmen, in the U. S. Aviation based armed forces, are accused of completing the sets of their Sergeants and other leaders. There is no conversation or trade of thoughts. Here, directors, or senior officials, give bearings and expect that their assets are dispensed by careful requests. Objectives are set by military authorities and afterward passed on through the positions. All procedure is created by high positioning individuals, also. Individuals from the military are compensated with a progressive position because of appropriately serving inside their relegated job. Despite the fact that totalitarian administration appears to be constrained, there are distinct advantages to view. Since there is clear course given by supervisors who buy in to the dictatorial style, there is no disarray about desires. This away from of what is normal advances errands being finished by cutoff time and item consistency. Alongside the positive parts of the imperious administration style there are sure negative focuses. With this sort of the executives, representatives or assets have no contribution to the errands that they are given (Vanderburg, 2004). This makes the maker be separated from the item. Assets don't feel esteemed and have no possession in their work. Along these lines there is an abatement in inspiration and a high turnover rate. (See Exhibit B) Participative Management The participative style of the board is unique in relation to imperious in that there is a lesser level of bearing from the administrator. A participative administrator, instead of settling on restrictive choices, tries to fuse others all the while. Participative chiefs potentially incorporate subordinates, companions, bosses and different partners in the dynamic procedure (Coleman, 2004). Since this sort of chief thinks about the perspectives on others, choices are regularly settled on dependent on the understanding of the greater part. In spite of the fact that there is significant thought of outer sources, the most participative movement stays inside the quick group of companions. The participative administrator permits less control and bearing to move to subordinates. The topic of how much impact may shift on the individual inclinations and convictions of the chief. This style of the executives may likewise be known as the popularity based style. The correspondence is very broad in this style of the executives. There is impressive trade in the two bearings, from director to assets and the other way around (Coleman, 2004). The perfect is for the greater part to arrive at an agreement over a business choice. The objective setting process is likewise done in a helpful exertion. Participative supervisors settle on objectives with the thought of outside thoughts, too. The availability of arriving at these objectives is likewise a state of conversation in the participative style of the board. This kind of chief has a fatherly quality in that the prosperity and accomplishment of subordinates, companions, bosses and different assets are considered (Coleman, 2004). Along these lines the dynamic procedure isn't one-sided. The participative administration style advances valuable trough criticism. In the event that changes are to be made to the item, there is conversation of the course that ought to be taken. Participative directors give positive input, too. This is in accordance with the fatherly attributes of this style of the executives. When choosing prizes and acknowledgment, participative administration fuses the exhibition audit process. Since participative administrators invite the dynamic job of subordinates, they are happy to talk about worker execution, praise qualities, and create shortcomings. This sort of the board is, maybe, the most common in the foundation of numerous huge organizations, today. Companies, for example, IBM, Home Depot, Pitney Bowes and endless others have grasped participative administration s
Saturday, August 8, 2020
Coffee Talk One of the things I truly love about MIT is that you never know when youll learn, stumble-upon and/or be run over by something new. While waiting in line for some iced tea this morning the two architecture students behind me were discussing their current fabrication project involving modular design, scalability and the potential and weaknesses of incorporating transparent concrete. Wait, what? So apparently there is something called transparent concrete. Its really only semi-transparent (for now) but it still reminded me about how much innovation there is in an essentially millennia-old technology. MIT is in on the concrete re-imagining, too. Professors Ulm and Vandamme have shown how to slow concrete creep, the time-dependent deformation that occurs in concrete when it is subjected to load and which eventually causes it to fail. Based on their findings, creep could be reduced to the point where concrete could last for hundreds or perhaps thousands of years, rather than the 10s of years in current construction. Longer lasting concrete not only means lower costs, increased safety, and less rebuilding, but could also reduce CO2 emissions from the industry, which currently accounts for estimated 5 to 8 percent of all human-generated atmospheric CO2 worldwide. So your Course 1 P-Set for the day is: how much transparent concrete would I need to safely transport a pair of humpback whales?
Tuesday, June 23, 2020
Abstract Being an adolescent usually means a stafe in life associate with a period of transition from childhood to adulthood. Therefore, adolescence generally is co-related with puberty, which consists of a biological phenonemon marked by the increase of hormones, adrenal and gonadal, resulting in development of secondary sex characteristics. This stage is also associated to risk-taking behaviors and increased emotional reactivity. For many of the individuals going through this period if life, adolescence means spending less time with their parents and at the same time, increasig the time with peers, which means more autonomy (Jaworska, 2015). In this paper will consider to discuss the effects and benefits of group couseling for adolescent immigrants, a particular group of individuals with similar developmental, cognitive and social experiences to other adolescents in general, however, having to face challenges related to socio-cultural transitions at the same, given their status as immigrants. Keywords: Counseling, adolescents, development, behavior, immigrants. Introduction According to the United Nations High Commisioner for Refugees (UNHCR, 2016) there are around 65,3 million individuals forced to leave their homes because of war, political conflicts, and persecution. A good portion of these immigrants or refugees will suffer as consequence of these events, from some mental health disorders such as PTSD (Posttraumatic Stress Disorder), depression, and or anxiety-related disorders (Kowitt et al., 2016). It is estimated that about 10.7 million of the immigrants and refugees around the world are composed of individuals under the age of 18 years old, (UNCHR,2016) and 40% of these young immigrants and refugees have a mental health illness diagnosis (Kowitt et al., 2016). Unfortunately for those in need of aid regarding their mental health needs, the situation is not comfortable. The availability in terms of services offered to this population, immigrants and refugees is currenytly oppressive and inequitable (Walker, 2005). Issues and Concerns Pertinent to Adolescent Immigrants In general, adolescence is seemed as an important life stage related to personal developmental changes such as transition from parents dependence to autonomy, and formation of strong ties with their peers instead. At the same time these changes may also affect these individuals in many ways resulting in stress and intense conflicts of inter-generational nature. For many adolescents however, the experiences related to this developmental stage are even intense, given the fact they are also immigrants, having to deal with issues specific to the immigration experience such as adjustment, acculturation, stress, and inter-generation conflicts related of the differential rates of adjustment (Baptiste, 1990). According to Yakushko (2008) immigrants and refugees including adolescents, feel a intense amount of stress due to various factors. The primary focus given by literature on this matter is directly related to their adjustment into a new culture, or acculturation stress. Yakushko (2010) states that eventhough most of the researches focus in the effects of acculturation stress in immigrants after their relocation, however many of these stressors begin to affect their lives even before, or prior to their relocation. Acculturation can be defined as the patterns of reactions experienced by a minority group in relation in their insertion into a new dominant cultural environment. Adolescents in this context are exposed to the same stressors as their parents, and same grandparents in this transition, such as feeling limitations in term of linguistic, difficulties with a new culture, conflict in their relationships associated to cultural changes, familys economic challenges, micro-aggressions, loss of social status and social contact (Yakushko, 2010). Stress, Self-Efficacy, and Social Challenges of Adolescent Immigrants Moving to a different country might affect the lives of individuals with the exposure to a different culture and society. This sort of transition provide opportunities for new social roles and offers new oportunities of interaction within the surroundings. If for any individual, the experience of moving from his or her native place of origin to a new country means have their lives affected in all spheres, in the case of adolescent immigrants, the impact involving this may be highly amplified in their lives. Being an adolescent living in a new country means having to rebuild their social network, adapt to new school system, restructure relationship with parents, and learn a new language, new cultural rules, and new norms (Titzmann Jugert, 2017). For an adolescent immigrant the experience of immigration to a new country can be easier than for his or her parent or grandparent. Unlike their parents, adolescent immigrants usually demonstrate being more malleable, resulting in a quicker adaption to the new culture, adopting that cultures behaviors, values, habits, and attitudes, like many adolescents from regions of the world such as Latin America, Asia, and Africa who come to the U.S. every year and are able to be inserted in the new culture, assuming their Americaness quickly than their parents (Baptiste, 1990). This difference in acculturation can result in generational conflicts. It is noted that the period just after the arrival can create a time of crisis among many adolescents, resulting in destabilization in their cognitive and behavioral patterns. According to Bandura (1982) the lack of linguistic skills and discrimination can negatively affect adolescent immigrants mastering their experiences in the new environment and affect their self-efficacy skills and abilities as well. Group Counseling Among Adolescent Immigrants and Refugees Based in the specific characteristics involving adolescent immigrants and refugees such as acculturation stress, adjustment to a new environment, and re-establishment of relationships, among many others, it is recommended that counselors working with this population demonstrate sensibility to some aspects related to culturally responsive interventions, in order to build trust and safety for them (Whitfield, 2017). Working in group with adolescents who were relocated to a new country are rare, however there is positive results considering the fact that at this age level, mostly from 12 to 18, these individuals tend to find comfortable and acceptable to pair with other adolescents. This behavioral pattern can be recognized as an important protective factor in assisting these persons to overcome adjustment issues and emotional distress. According to Walsh (2006) resilience plays an important role among immigrant and refugee families, and there are 3 important factors to consider in thi s matter: belief systems, organizational, and communication process. These factors help in providing cohesiveness and organization related to life events, helping people learning to overcome situations involving crisis. Immigrants, especially adolescents need to be aware about some of the patterns that help to create resilience as they face stressors during their process of acculturation in a new country. Flexibility, connectedness, and social and economic resources are some of patterns related to the development of resilience in the family dynamics. Group counseling in that matter can be helpful as a resource where adolescent immigrants can relate to other people living similar situation, connect to these others, and explore social and economic resources with the exchange of information. Walsh (2006) also mentions that clear consistent messages with speech and actions, open emotional sharing such as mutual empathy, avoiding blame and sharing a wide range of emotions, collaborative problem solving such as creative brainstorming, having a proactive stance, and shared decision making are all keys to promote family resilience. It would beneficial that practitioners using group counseling with adolescent immigrants to emphasize the positive aspects of school-based interventions, given the fact that schools can reinforce proactive behaviors for teen immigrants. Many schools provide mental health services to their students, including those who are immigrants, in some Europeans countries, U.S., and Canada (Fazel et al., 2016). In that matter, group therapy can effectively help to connect immigrant and refugees, especially teenagers or adolescents to the school community. Studies had found that the use of group therapy with immigrants and refugees help build their trust, strengthen their sense of belonging and cultural pride (Hughes, 2014). Group-based narrative is one of the approaches used for practitioners, which consists in allow the youth to express their life ex periences to others, with the objective of healing from their emotional traumas (Hughes, 2014). Whitfield (2017) describes how the youth interact during a group-based narrative session. It begins by drawing a tree as a way to empowerment. In the roots they trace their cultural roots and past social interactions, and at ground level, they map their current life. They also drawn their strengths and abilities on the trunk, and their hopes and dreams are inserted on the branches of the tree. Before the beginning of the group, the participants evaluate all the things they wanted to get out of the group, and they express in a scale from far they still are from reaching their goal. As they approach the end of the group, they apply the same actions as they did in the beginning, however with the intention to observe what they gained from that experience in the group. According to Hughes (2013) there is consistent information that the results obtained by these types of group therapy helped th e participants to develop cultural pride, increase self-confidence, and peer support. Group Counseling showed to be helpful with East Asian adolescent immigrants with problems related to depression, anxiety, and identity. In order to facilitate this type of service among immigrant communities, it will be helpful to a clinician or counselor to understand the nuances and cultural aspects of that specific group. Therefore, clinicians who are themselves immigrants, possessing bilingual skills, and culturally responsiveness can play a role as cultural brokers, however these considerations do not mean that a non-immigrant and non-bilingual will not be able to perform his or her job in a satisfactory manner. Conclusion Working with immigrants and refugees, and specifically with adolescents going through these experiences, adolescence itself and its aspects regarding developmental, cognitive, and social changes given the changes involving individuals in that age, and also other aspects related in that matter with the relocation, acculturation, and social and inter-generational issues that may developed or created as individuals move voluntarily or forcefully from one country to another. The use of therapeutic approaches, being in a group or individual format can help and assist these individuals overcome many of the obstacles that were cited previously in this paper assignment. Group-based narrative approach seems to be an effective way to be applied when dealing with immigrants and refugees in their teen years, helping them to interact, express, connect, and build their trust and self-pride. It is also important that counselors, clinicians, and practitioners acquire and develop abilities and skills so they can perform their duty or mission within those communities with compassion, efficiency, and professionalism. Linguistic skills, cultural responsiveness and competence, and trauma-informed are some of the important abilities to help a professional to better serve his or her clients in an immigrant community, especially those in the adolescence stage. References Bandura, A. (1982). Self-efficacy mechanism in human agency. American Psychologist, 37(2), 122Ã¢â¬Å"147. doi: 10.1037/0003-066X. 37.2.122 Baptiste, D. A. (1990). The treatment of adolescents and their families in cultural transition: Issues and recommendations. 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